General Information

The name (Sudan) was designated to the lands that were located Southern of the African Greater Desert which extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red sea and the Indian Ocean in the east. Nowadays, the said name is designated to the region which is located in the South of Egypt in the middle part of the Nile Basin. The name (Kosh) was also designated, in the Old Testament and the Assyrian texts to the same part of land, but the present name (Sudan) is the plural of a Greek word that means (black people).

Location and Area

Sudan is located in the northeastern part of Africa between the 22.4 latitude northern equator and 38.22 longitude. The country occupies the middle part between Africa and the Arab World which. Such a location distinguishes Sudan with a unique characteristic considering it the main passage between north and south of Africa. Sudan also was the main passage for the pilgrim and trade convoys that forward from the east of Africa to the Holy Lands until the mid of the current century.

Total area of the Sudan is  (about 1.882.000 million km square) which makes it one of the largest African countries and it comes sixteenth among the largest countries of the world. Sudan is the thired largest Arab country and the second African's.

Countries neighbor Sudan

Egypt, Libya, Chad, Central Africa, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan and the Red Sea.

The River Nile, including all its various branches, plays an important role in the Sudan's economic, social and cultural life and in its foreign relationships. Water of the River Nile and all its various branches is utilized in generating electricity from Dams of Al-Roseires, Sinnar, Khashm Al-Girba and Jabal Awliaa as well as in navigation and fishing.


of Sudan in the beginning of the year 2011 is estimated to be about (33.419.625) persons at a growth rate of 2,53 annually, population density reaches 14 persons for one km square. Population of rural areas constitutes 24,6% of the total population. Population of Sudan is comprised from tribes that descended from Arab, African and Nubian origins.


 Islam, Christianity and local beliefs.


Arabic, local languages and dialects.

Airports, Airstrip and Seaports

There are (17) airports in Sudan of which (6) are international airports, the biggest one thereof is the Khartoum International Airport, which studies are currently made for transferring and reconstructing it, and (11) local airport distributed in  states: Atbara, Al-Fashir and others. There are (63) airstrips currently in the different parts of Sudan.

The Red Sea is the only navigation outlet for Sudan to the external world. Port Sudan, Suakin, Awseif and Bashair are the Sudanese ports. Coast of the Red Sea is characterized by existence of coral phylums which provide lodging to different types of rare marine creatures

System of Governance

According to the Interim Constitution for the year 2005, System of Governance is federalism.
Levels of governance is represented in the following:
Level of the national governance that exercises power for protecting sovereignty of Sudan, guaranteeing safety of its lands and enhancing welfare of its people.

Level of states' governance that exercises power at the level of states allover Sudan for providing public services through the nearest level to citizens which is the level of local governance which is available all over Sudan. In Sudan there are 17 states.

The Capital Khartoum is comprised of three towns, Khartoum which is the political capital, Omdurman the national capital and Khartoum North the industrial capital.